[133], With the creation of customs barriers and fragmented protective economies, the economic growth and outlook in the region sharply declined,[134] ultimately culminating in a deep recession. Furthermore, ethnically diverse Transylvania, with an overall Romanian majority (53.8% – 1910 census data or 57.1% – 1919 census data or 57.3% – 1920 census data), was treated as a single entity at the peace negotiations and was assigned in its entirety to Romania. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France . 1920 Június 4. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. The communist government followed the Soviet model: the party established its terror groups (like the infamous Lenin Boys) to "overcome the obstacles" in the Hungarian countryside. [17] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into the First World War. Officially the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the right of self-determination for nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing the old multinational Austro-Hungarian empire. This started by the First Vienna Award, then was continued with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1939 (annexation of the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia and a small strip from eastern Slovakia), afterwards by the Second Vienna Award in 1940, and finally by the annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia. Róbert Győri, and Charles WJ Withers, "Trianon and its aftermath: British geography and the 'dismemberment’of Hungary, c. 1915-c. Juni 1920, besiegelte er die 1918/19 erfolgten Sezessionen aus dem Königreich Ungarn – bis 1918 mit Österreich in Realunion verbunden – nach dem für die Doppelmonarchie verlorenen Krieg. 1930); K. Rotschild, Austria's Economic Development Between the Two Wars (London, 1946). Although the countries that were the main beneficiaries of the treaty partially noted the issues, the Hungarian delegates tried to draw attention to them. The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. Ansonsten wird der Vertrag von Trianon für uns alle etwas symbolisieren, das nicht gut ist. [125] This shows that the various parts of the former monarchy were economically interdependent. El Tractat del Trianon, signat el 4 de juny de 1920, és la conclusió de l'assemblea celebrada al palau del Grand Trianon del castell de Versalles , per tal d'establir l'status d'Hongria després de la seva derrota a la I Guerra Mundial. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. Vide for the controversy of the role of the state: Iván T. Berend and Gyorgy Ranki, Magyarorszag gazdasaga 1919–1929 [Hungary's economy] (Budapest, 1965). ("No, no, never!") Another reason why the victorious Allies decided to dissolve the Central-European great power, Austria-Hungary, a strong German supporter and fast developing region, was to prevent Germany from acquiring substantial influence in the future. "The Afterlife of the Treaty of Trianon.". For Hungarians, the outer territories were not seen as colonial territories, but rather part of the core national territory. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: 1. There are several reasons for this population decrease, some of which were spontaneous assimilation and certain state policies, like Slovakization, Romanianization, Serbianisation. [65] This opinion was not taken into account during the negotiations. [54] The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Trianon. Hungary lost connection to strategic military and economic infrastructure due to the concentric layout of the railway and road network, which the borders bisected. The 1919 and 1920 Transylvanian censuses indicate a smaller Hungarian minority (26.5% / 25.5%). On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Some Slovak demographers (such as Ján Svetoň [sk] and Julius Mesaros) dispute the result of every pre-war census. For instance, Romania gained all of Transylvania, which was home to 2,800,000 Romanians, but also contained a significant minority of 1,600,000 Hungarians and about 250,000 Germans. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. Il principio della riorganizzazione, su base etnica, della carta dell'Europa, accolto dal trattato in base ai Quattordici punti di Woodrow Wilson, paradossalmente - secondo lo storico britannico Eric Hobsbawm - fornì una giustificazione alle successive pulizie etniche e, addirittura, all'Olocausto degli Ebrei[2]. [130] These factors all combined created some imbalances in the now separated economic regions of the former Monarchy. French diplomats played the major role in the drafting, and Hungarians were kept in the dark. The option of partition along ethnic lines as an alternative was rejected.[102]. The Romanian delegation to Versailles feared in 1919 that the Allies were beginning to favour the partition of Transylvania along ethnic lines to reduce the potential exodus[citation needed] and Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu even summoned British-born Queen Marie to France to strengthen their case. ("Return everything!" The Communists remained bitterly unpopular[45] in the Hungarian countryside, where the authority of that government was often nonexistent. Come il generale francese Ferdinand Foch commentò: "Questa non è la pace, ma solo un armistizio per 20 anni"[1]. Germany, the major ally of Austria-Hungary in World War I, suffered numerous losses during Hundred Days Offensive between August and November 1918 and was in negotiation of armistice with Allied Powers from beginning of October 1918. "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon. Il trattato fu ritenuto unilaterale e ingiusto anche dai contemporanei e secondo alcuni storici contribuì in modo significativo allo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale. Their long-term goal was to build a coalition of small new nations led by France and capable of standing up to Russia or Germany. [92], After the treaty, the percentage and the absolute number of all Hungarian populations outside of Hungary decreased in the next decades (although, some of these populations also recorded temporary increase of the absolute population number). Alcuni articoli del trattato richiesero a tutte le parti contraenti di rispettare vari diritti delle minoranze nazionali presenti entro i suoi confini. The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. [51] The lengthy negotiation process was recorded on a daily basis by János Wettstein [hu], deputy first secretary of the Hungarian delegation. Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. Hanák, Peter. Most Hungarians preferred to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. In base al censimento del 1910, il principale gruppo etnico del Regno di Ungheria era quello ungherese, che rappresentava approssimativamente il 48% dell'intera popolazione (calcolando la Croazia). ", Bartha, Dezso. Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 2,431,273 "others" (mostly Hungarians – 1,662,948 (31.6%) and Germans – 563,087 (10.7%)). Ausspracheführer: Lernen Sie Trattato del Trianon auf Italienisch muttersprachlich auszusprechen. Some predominantly Hungarian settlements, consisting of more than two million people, were situated in a typically 20–50 km (12–31 mi) wide strip along the new borders in foreign territory. [103] The Western powers' main priority was to prevent a resurgence of the German Reich and they therefore decided that her allies in the region, Austria and Hungary, should be "contained" by a ring of states friendly to the Allies,[citation needed] each of which would be bigger than either Austria or Hungary. The disintegration of the multi-national state conversely impacted neighbouring countries, too: In Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria a fifth to a third of the rural population could find no work, and industry was in no position to absorb them. "Peacebuilding in an Era of State-Nations: The Europe of Trianon. After fierce fighting that lasted some five days, the Hungarian Red Army collapsed. on 8 November, the Czechoslovak Army crossed the northern borders, on 13 November, the Romanian army crossed the eastern borders of the, South Slavic lands, which, after the war, were organised into two political formations – the, Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje remained under Hungarian control after the ceasefire agreement of Belgrade from 13 November 1918. [citation needed] During the rule of Károlyi's pacifist cabinet, Hungary lost the control over approx. This was later known as the Red Terror in Hungary. After these population movements, Hungary became a nearly ethnically homogeneous country. 75% of its former pre-WWI territories (325,411 km2 (125,642 sq mi)) without a fight and was subject to foreign occupation.[32]. [101] According to a study, two-thirds of Hungarians agreed in 2020 that parts of neighbouring countries should belong to them, the highest percentage of all NATO countries. Panduan pengucapan: Pelajari cara mengucapkan Trattato del Trianon dalam Bahasa Italia dari penutur aslinya. [12] In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. Published by Danubian Press, 1969 Days later the Communists purged the Social Democrats from the government. Representatives of small nations living in the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness[70] because a better future for their nations was "to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy, real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested with the authority of arbitration" while at the same time making a call for putting an end to "the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other" and making it possible "for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights and free conventions". [18] Two alliances faced off, the Central Powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Entente (led by Britain, France and Russia). Hi prengueren part, a més del país interessat, les potències vencedores i llurs associats . The Hungarian Red Army recruited men between 19–25 years of age. June 4, 2020 The 100th Anniversary of the Treaty of Trianon "Ancient poets and theologians could not imagine such suffering, which Trianon bought to the innocent. 1,687,977 Slovaks [according to the 1921 census: 1,941,942 Slovaks], 1,233,454 "others" (mostly Hungarians – 886,044, Germans, Ruthenians and Roma) [according to the 1921 census: 1,058,928 of "others"], 1,366,000 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans), 275,932 "others" (mostly Hungarians, Germans, Romanians, and Slovaks), 69,858 "others" (mainly Croatian and Hungarian). Tratatul a fost semnat în Palatul Marele Trianon de la Versailles de către 16 state aliate (inclusiv România), pe de o parte, și de Ungaria, de altă parte. ", Peter Pastor, "Hungarian and Soviet Efforts to Possess Ruthenia", Spatiul istoric si etnic romanesc, Editura Militara, Bucuresti, 1992. [49] The Hungarian patriots and professional military officers in the Red Army saw the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic as a betrayal, and their support for the government began to erode (the communists and their government supported the establishment of the Slovak Communist state, while the Hungarian patriots wanted to keep the reoccupied territories for Hungary). [35][36] It limited the size of the Hungarian army to six infantry and two cavalry divisions. The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg musste Ungarn zwei Drittel seines früheren Staatsgebietes abgeben. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this cease-fire line, the Entente powers asked Hungary (Vix Note) to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia) In late May, after the Entente military representative demanded more territorial concessions from Hungary, Kun attempted to "fulfill" his promise to adhere to Hungary's historical borders. [24] General Franchet d'Espèrey followed up the victory by overrunning much of the Balkans and by the war's end, his troops had penetrated well into Hungary. With regard to the ethnic issues, the Western powers were aware of the problem posed by the presence of so many Hungarians (and Germans) living outside the new nation-states of Hungary and Austria. The last alliance was the so called Little Entente (Südosteuropa Lexikon 354, Kertesz 45). Kun then unsuccessfully tried to turn the remaining units of the demoralized Hungarian Red Army on the Romanians. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy politically collapsed and disintegrated as a result of a defeat in the Italian Front (World War I). Despite a series of military victories against the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian Red Army started to disintegrate due to tension between nationalists and communists during the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic. ", Balogh, Eva S. "Peaceful Revision: The Diplomatic Road to War. More concentrated groups were found in Czechoslovakia (parts of southern Slovakia), Yugoslavia (parts of northern Délvidék), and Romania (parts of Transylvania). The number of non-Hungarian and Hungarian communities in the different areas based on the census data of 1910 (in this, people were not directly asked about their ethnicity, but about their native language). Il Trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d’Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell’Impero Austro-Ungarico. Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. [3] ", Wilfried Fest, Peace or Partition, The Habsburg Monarchy and British Policy, 1914–1918 (New York: St. Martin's 1978). The Hungarian Red Army moved its 1st and 5th artillery divisions—40 battalions—to Upper Hungary. Their views were disregarded by the Allied representatives. A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948. 100 Jahre Erster Weltkrieg Ungarns Trauma von Trianon. tratatul de la trianon Mihai Ghimpu, presedintele interimar al Republicii Moldova, a declarat ca tratatul privind regimul de frontiera semnat Romania si Moldova este ilegal si neconstitutional, informeaza adevarul.ro. Trattato del Trianon; trattato di adesione CE; trattato di adesione UE; Trattato di Amiens; trattato di Amsterdam; Trattato di Amsterdam; trattato magyar fordítás és meghatározás "trattato", olasz-magyar szótár online. ", Pastor, Peter. Hungary then controlled the territory to its old borders; regained control of industrial areas around Miskolc, Salgótarján, Selmecbánya, Kassa. It called for a negotiated end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, and the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states. "Atat timp [..] Alte informatii despre: mihai ghimpu , tratat , regim de frontiera . President Woodrow Wilson acted as an independent force and his Fourteen Points was accepted by Germany as a basis for the armistice of November 1918. The lines would apply until definitive borders could be established. The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. [79] These reasons are ground for debate about the accuracy of the census. Pastor, Peter. [37] Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made. "The Trianon Peace Treaty in Hungarian Historiography and Political Thinking.". The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. El sustine ca premierul Vlad Filat nu avea mandatul necesar pentru a semna acest act. Rispetto a quelli stabiliti diciotto mesi prima, i confini stavolta non comprendevano: In base al trattato del Trianon, le città di Pécs, Mohács, Baja e Szigetvár, che erano state occupate dalla Serbia nel novembre 1918, vennero restituite all'Ungheria. By Edwin A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918, Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army, annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia, "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century", "AZ ŐRVIDÉKI (BURGENLANDI) MAGYARSÁG SORSA", http://adatbank.sk/lexikon/pozsonyi-hidfo/, "Trianon volt az utolsó csepp – A Magyar Királyság sorsa már jóval a békeszerződés aláírása előtt eldőlt", "Grand Trianon in Versailles Palace. Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. One of the main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of "self-determination of peoples", and it was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. [118], Hungary's bitter memory was also a source of regional tension after the Cold War ended in 1989. After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. The concession eroded support of the communist government among professional military officers and nationalists in the Hungarian Red Army; even the chief of the general staff Aurél Stromfeld, resigned his post in protest.[50]. Original from the University of California It proved to be immensely challenging for the successor states to successfully transform their economies to adapt to the new circumstances. Il 31 ottobre 1918, a Timișoara venne proclamata la Repubblica del Banato e il governo ungherese ne riconobbe l'indipendenza. "Major trends in Hungarian foreign policy from the collapse of the monarchy to the peace treaty of Trianon. Ufficio Centrale di Statistica, Mappa dei confini ungheresi nel novembre/dicembre 1918, Il Trattato del Trianon e lo scorporamento dell'Ungheria, Il Trattato del Trianon e le sue tragiche conseguenze, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trattato_del_Trianon&oldid=112504118, Accordi diplomatici della prima guerra mondiale, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Riassetto dell'Europa danubiana, con ampie cessioni territoriali a favore di, sempre in conformità al trattato di Saint-Germain, gran parte del.